(texte en préparation, mars 2007)
Hoorn, 1511 – Arnemuiden, 1575
Hadrianus Junius or Adriaen de Jonghe was born on 1 July 1 1511 in the city of Hoorn in West-Friesland, part of the province of Holland. His father had been mayor of the city for a period of five years. In his early years he was taught by Johannes Hejerd and not long after 1523 he was sent to Haarlem to attend the Latin School, where he was taught by the rector Jacob Meyster. He also received lessons from Nicolaus Galius (Nicholas van Galen) and the physician Johannes Gallus. On 29 September 1534 he matriculated in Louvain University, but he was in Hoorn at least from the beginning of July until the second half of November 1537. He then set off for a Grand Tour, which probably led through Cologne in Germany. In June 1538 he was in Siena and on 24 February 1540, he took a doctorate in Medicine and Philosophy in Bologna. He then went to Paris, where he was on 20 December 1540. Here in 1541 his first work was published by Wechel : a translation of Cassius Medicus. In Paris Junius studied further in medicine and attended the lecures of Jacobus Hollerius and Jean Fernel. He stayed in Paris probably at least until 28 September 1542.
Around October 1543, Edmund Bonner, the later bishop of London, invited Junius to come to England. Junius arrived there on the 22 March or 10 April 1544 and was taken into service by the Howard family as a personal physician to Thomas Howard, third duke of Norfolk. From 8 August 1544 onwards, Junius also tutored the two sons of his patron’s son Henry Howard, the ‘poet-earl of Surrey’. Junius published an edition of Curtius Rufus (Antwerp 1546). In December 1546, his patrons were charged with high-treason. Junius was at Henry Howard’s residence in Kenninghall (Norfolk) and could not avoid that his patron’s library, which was in Lambeth, Surrey (now London) was looted, together with Junius’ own books. Twelve days before the execution of Henry Howard, on 19 January 1547, Junius dedicated his edition of Plutarch’s Symposiaca problemata (Paris 1547) to his new patron, the imperial envoy Francis van der Dilft or Franciscus Dilfius. He then resided in the quarters where most of the foreign ambassadors stayed : the run down Bridewell palace, where he also functioned as a physician to a noble lady (maybe Dilfius’ wife ?). During the next two years, he worked on a Greek-Latin dictionary (Basle, 1548), which he dedicated to the young king Edward VI.
On 1 November 1550, Junius was appointed rector of the Latin School in Haarlem which he attended in his youth. Annoyed by the little time this position left him for his studies, he resigned eighteen months later, on 1 May 1552, to become a physician in the service of the city. Junius may have lived in Hoorn for a short period in the first half of 1554, but in September he was back in London to offer Queen Mary Tudor his epic poem Philippeis, in honour of her marriage to Philip II on 2 106ly 1554. He complained about his scant reward and may have returned to Holland at the end of 1554. Certain is only that he was back in Haarlem on 27 January 1556. Junius’ marriage in that year to Maria Wilhelmina Keizers, who brought with here a rich dowry, may have permitted him to finally continue his studies without interruption. He published his Animadversa (Basle, 1556), annotations on Seneca (Basle, 1557), a some of Eustathius’ commentaries on Homer (Copiae cornu, Basle, 1558) and the Adagia (Basle 1558). Shortly after the death of his first wife, he married Adrianne Hasselaer, sister of Kenau, the heroic woman who rose to fame when Haarlem was besieged in 1573. The death of his first wife forced Junius to open a private school in Haarlem in 1558 and marks the beginning of period of six years in which Junius did not published a single work but in which became firmly part of the Haarlem network of artists and writers, who praised the epigramms he contributed to their work. Among his friends were the poet Dirck Volkertsz. Coornhert, the painter Maarten van Heemskerck, and the printer and engraver Philips Galle.
In April 1564, Junius traveled to Copenhagen to become a physician of king Frederic II and to succeed a professor of Medicine who had died in January 1564. The arrangement turned out to be unsatisfactory : on 9 June Junius was back in Haarlem. There he published a treatise on a type of fungus (Phallus, Delft, 1564) and established connections with the Plantin press in Antwerp, where from then onwards, all his works would be printed : his Nonius Marcellus (1565), the poem Anastaurosis (1565), his popular and influential Emblemata (1565), his annotations on Plautus (1566), his probably most widely dispersed work, the multilingual dictionary Nomenclator (1567), his editions of Martial (1568), his translation of Eunapius (1568) and his edition and translation of Hesychius Milesius (1572).
On 5 February 5 1566, Junius was appointed historian of the States of Holland and West-Friesland and charged with the task of writing a history of Holland. In the following five years, briefly interrupted by a third trip to England in 1568 to offer Elisabeth I his translation of Eunapius, Junius worked on this project and completed the first volume of his work in 1570. Due to a changed political situation, the States of Holland decided not print the work, and Junius continued to work on it until the beginning of 1575. In December 1572, Haarlem was besieged by Spanish troops. In February 1573 nevertheless, William of Orange, who lay sick in his headquarters in Delft, called on Junius to attend him. Apparently, Junius was able to leave the city, which later on that year surrendered to the Spanish, who confiscated Junius’ library. Junius may have secured some books and manuscripts in Alkmaar before Haarlem fell. In February 1574 Junius left Delft to become physician of the city of Middelburg in the province of Zeeland. The next year, he was appointed professor of medicine at the newly founded University of Leiden, but Junius fell ill and died on 16 June 1575, while visiting his sister-in-law Kenau in Arnemuiden. His son Petrus procured that his remains were reburried in the Koorkerk in Middelburg on April 29, 1579.
Ouvrages de référence : Castellanus 1618, 228-229 ; Valerius Andreas 1643, 11-13 ; Freherus 1688, 1270 ; Bayle 1697, 205-208 ; Morery 1702 (284) ; Nicéron 1729-1745 ; Jöcher 1750, 2023-2024 ; Delvenne 1828, 577-578 ; Collot d’ Escury 1829, 123-125 ; Feller 1838, 723 ; van der Aa 4, 1852, 73-75 ; NNBW 7, 1927, 692-694 ; CL 1997, 449-455 ; ODNB 30, 2004, 835-836.
Bibliographie critique : Aston, M. The King’s Bedpost : reformation and iconography in a Tudor group portrait, 1993, 176-199 ; Heesakkers, C. L. ‘Neulateinische Geschichtsschreibung im Holländischem Humanismus des 16. Jahrthuderts’ in ACNG, 201-209 ; Heesakkers, C.L. Tussen Erasmus en Leiden. Hadrianus Junius en zijn betekenis voor de ontwikkeling van het humanisme in Holland in de zestiende eeuw, Leiden 1986 ; Heesakkers, C.L. ‘De Europese horizon van de Neolatijnse literatuur’, in M. A. Schenkeveld-van der Dussen (ed.), Nederlandse literatuur – Een geschiedenis, Groningen 1993, 147-152 ; Heesakkers, C.L. ‘Junius, Hadrianus (1511-1575)’ in CL, 449-455 ; Heesakkers, C.L. ‘Hadriani Iunii Medici Emblemata (1565)’, in K. Enenkel and A. Visser (eds.), Mundus Emblematicus. Studies in Neo-Latin Emblem Books, Turnhout 2003, 33-69 ; Rademaker, C. S. M. ‘De Nomenclator van Hadrianus Junius’, Hermeneus, 39 (1967-1968) ; van Miert, D. De voorwoorden van Hadrianus Junius’ Batavia, [ed., intr., tr., comm.] Hoorn, 1996 ; van Miert, D. Hadrianus Junius en zijn Batavia. Praeliminaria voor een biografie en voor een studie van zijn boek over Holland (MA-thesis, unpublished) ; van Miert, D. ‘The religious beliefs of Hadrianus Junius (1511-1575)’, In : ACNC, 583-594 ; van Miert, D. ‘Adriano Junio y su Batavia’. In : J.-M. Maestre Maestre et al. (eds), Humanismo y pervivencia del mundo clásico 3 (Cádiz 2003), 1513-1517 ; van Miert, D. ‘Receptie in paradox : een vergelijking van de voorwoorden van Junius en Livius’, Lampas, 37/2 (2004), 209-215 ; Veldman, I. M. ‘Enkele aanvullende gegevens omtrent de biografie van Hadrianus Junius’, BMGN 89 (1974), 375-384 ; Veldman, I.M. ‘Maarten van Heemskerck and Hadrianus Junius : the relationship between a painter and a humanist’, Simiolus, 7/1 (1974), 35-54 ; Vermaseren, B. A. ‘Het ontstaan van Hadrianus Junius’ Batavia (1588)’, in Huldeboek voor Pater Dr. Bonaventura Kruitwagen (Den Haag / The Hague 1949), 406-426 ; Wesseling, A. ‘David Joris “Son of God”. An unpublished satire by the Dutch Humanist Hadrianus Junius’, NAKG 71 (1991), 50-57.